Central America counts cost of deadly export from Los Angeles
Poor neighbours fall prey to US gang culture
The signs of the influence of the United States on Central America
are everywhere: McDonald's and KFC, movies and sportswear. Less easy to
spot is one export which has a devastating effect on the region: gang
Six years ago, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant
Responsibility Act was introduced in the US, which allowed the
"expedited removal" of immigrants who had committed crimes.
This has led to the deportations to Central America of thousands of
gang members, mainly from the Los Angeles region, who arrived in the US
as children with their parents. Back in Central America they are
retaining their structures. Gang "franchises" have taken hold in El
Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala.
The influence of US gang culture is evident in poor neighbourhoods or
barrios across Central America. There are local variations on a dress
code of baggy clothes, baseball caps and chains, a defined taste in
music (much of it Latino rap and hip-hop), a semiology in tattoos,
graffiti and hand signs, and a slang peppered with imported words like
broderes (brothers) and "homies". Most damaging is a fashion for extreme
violence that has found an easy home in countries with violent
In El Salvador, with a population of 6 million, a survey put gang
membership at 20,000. Gang members are thought to be responsible for 10%
of El Salvador's annual murder rate of 120 killings for every 100,000
people. The economic impact is huge: a study commissioned by the
Inter-American Development Bank found that 12% of GNP is spent on
dealing with violence and its consequences.
In Guatemala, with a population of 13 million, the police calculate
that there are more than 300 gangs with a total membership of 200,000.
In Honduras, with a population of 6 million, there are said to be 60,000
The two major international "franchises" are the MS (Mara Salvatrucha)
and the Mara 18 (also known as MS-18 and Calle 18). Local branches of
these gangs are involved in major crime from smuggling drugs and
weapons, to kidnapping and car-jacking.
The spread of the gangs has its origins in the conflicts that have
racked Central America during the past 25 years. In the early 1980s,
more than 1 million refugees fled to the US during El Salvador's civil
war, which killed 75,000 people.
Some had ties with La Mara, a street gang from the capital, San
Salvador. Others had been members of groups such as the leftwing
Farabundo Marti National Liberation front. Many settled in Los Angeles
and found themselves in conflict with local Latino gangs.
Al Valdez, a district attorney investigator for Orange County in
California specialising in gangs, said initially the gangs had been
formed for self-protection, but "quickly developed a reputation for
being organised and extremely violent". According to Mr Valdez, Mara
Salvatrucha has expanded across the US, Canada, and Mexico.
"MS is unique in that, unlike traditional US street gangs, it
maintains active ties with MS members and factions in El Salvador. Mara
Salvatrucha is truly an international gang."
Deportations to El Salvador began after the immigration act was
passed and now about 300 arrive from the US every month. It is a similar
story in Guatemala and Honduras, where the latest annual figures show
that 8,000 have been deported from the US.
Miguel Cruz a Salvadorean academic and author said: "Only a few of
the deportees are criminals, but they have a significant influence on
the local gang members. They quickly become leaders and role models for
Increased sophistication is one thing the deportees bring. Oscar
Alavarez, Honduras minister of security, said a police raid on one gang
last week uncovered a book which detailed all their transactions, from
the costs of transport to ammunition. "They communicate on the internet,
they run the gangs like a business."
On April 5, 69 people were killed in El Porvenir prison in La Ceiba,
Honduras, of whom 61 were members of Mara 18. Most were shot by guards.
Many bodies had been burnt. President Ricardo Maduro has ordered an
investigation but relatives claimmost were killed after they
Jorge Hernandez, Honduras minister of the interior, said the
influence of the gangs now permeated the country's way of life. The
government is spending $30m (£18m) a year on projects to take people out
of the gangs but the gangs are growing.
The official response in Central America has been a mix of repression
and attempts to open a dialogue with gangs and young people: about a
third of the region's population are under 10. Half are under 20. In
Nicaragua, the police set up "prevention committees" and began visiting
gang members and their families.
The hope is to prevent MS and Mara 18 taking hold there. The
organisation Ceprev has worked with more than 3,000 pandilleros (gang
members) over the past six years in one district of Managua with the aim
of improving their relations with their families. Its director, Monica
Zalaquette, says: "The problem is not economic poverty, it is the
poverty of our family culture - that's what we have to change."
Bruce Harris of Casa Alianza, which works with at-risk young people
in Central America, said: "For years, the authorities have left young
people without hope, without access to school or jobs and the only
governmental response to youth dissent has been repression. We have
forced the kids to the extremes of society and they have responded with
violence. Gangs can no longer be ignored, especially if we want to live
'He is chained to stop him being killed'
Jose, 17, is chained by the ankle to an iron ring set into the floor
of his parents' wooden shack. He spends his days in a chair, a few feet
from a tiny black and white television. At night he is chained to the
frame of his bed. He is freed only to perform what his mother calls "his
Jose is a member of Los Puenteros, a street gang from a poor
neighbourhood in southern Managua, Nicaragua's capital. He is addicted
to crack cocaine. To pay for it he breaks into people's houses or robs
on the streets armed with a machete. He once took and sold his young
cousins' school shoes and rucksacks. "I don't know how long we will keep him there," Dona Wilma, Jose's
mother, said. Jose says nothing and doesn't take his eyes off the
cartoons. "But what else can we do? If we didn't he would go out on the
streets and be killed or arrested."
Without the chains, Jose would be on the run from the police with
other members of Los Puenteros who were at a bar on May 17 when their
leader, Tres Ojos (Three Eyes), killed a member of a rival gang with two
machete blows to the head.
Inter-gang violence has increased to the point where an unofficial
curfew operates in most of Managua's marginal neighbourhoods where more
than 100 gangs operate.
In this city of 1.2 million people, police made more than 40,000
arrests of gang members in 2001.
Although the gang franchises have not spread to Nicaragua because
there have been relatively few deportations from the US, the Los Angeles
culture has fuelled the growth of organised crime.
After dark, people close their doors and windows and the streets
become a battleground between rival gangs armed with stones, machetes,
pistols, and home-made mortars.
Nelly Rodriguez, a resident of the area known as Las Americas II,
said: "When they start to fight, stones start flying in every direction.
So many hit the roof of the house it feels like it is going to cave in
and I get under the table with my children."
The risks to non-combatants are real. In March Yolanda Molina, 12,
was shot dead in her home during a gunfight between rival gangs.
Rupert Widdicombe in Managua and Duncan Campbell in Tegucigalpa
2 June 2003