Violent crimes by girls rising, but the
reasons why remain unclear
The 14-year-old from Milwaukee sits slumped in a
plastic chair in a windowless room at Wisconsin's prison for juvenile
girls. With a face absent of emotion, she cocks her head and recounts
the time she picked up a bicycle handlebar and began to beat a girl in
her neighborhood. She was 8 and annoyed that the girl shared her name.
“I didn't care. I didn't feel anything. My mind was
someplace else,” said the girl, who fought regularly until she was
arrested for theft and sent to the prison in Union Grove.
“I'll fight anyone,” she said.
Her attitude has become increasingly typical, say
juvenile justice workers, educators and sociologists who are alarmed at
the rise of girl violence. Violent crime by boys is more frequent and
usually grabs more attention, but violent crime by girls has risen more
dramatically in recent decades, according to statistics. Overall arrests
of girls in Wisconsin in 2002 were 57% higher than in 1986, while
arrests for assault were up 102% — a total of 1,647 cases. For boys in
the same period, overall arrests were up 25%, while assault cases were
“There's more fighting among girls,” said Michael
Malmstadt, a judge in Milwaukee County's Children's Court who has worked
on juvenile cases for nearly 30 years. “The most prevalent offenses are
assault-related disorderly conduct or some sort of battery.”
What's behind the violence among girls is not clear.
Some attribute it to the rise of violence in pop culture and a
distortion of the movement to empower women. Others say girls have
always fought, and that what's changed is the way law enforcement
handles them. What is more clear is that the juvenile justice system is
not equipped to provide effective treatment to girls who are being
arrested for violent crimes. Absent in Wisconsin and across the country
are court programs that address female violence. “We have a crisis in
the juvenile justice system,” said Meda Chesney-Lind, a professor in
women's studies at the University of Hawaii, who has written books on
female violence. “We're arresting all these girls, but we're not doing
anything to deal with their issues.”
Nationwide problem Nationwide, the rate of arrests of
girls for violent crimes more than doubled between 1987 and 1994. The
rate for boys rose during that time as well, but not as substantially.
After peaking in the mid-1990s, both rates have since declined, as has
the adult crime rate. But the decline rate for girls in Wisconsin is
less than half that for boys. The violent crime arrest rate for juvenile
girls nationwide remains more than 50% above the 1980 rate. As many in
Wisconsin see it, girl violence is still on the rise.
“We have seen seven fights this past school year, and
six involved females,” said Jim Linstroth, coordinator of Mack
Achievement Center, which provides alternative education for middle and
high school students in Racine. He gave an interview on a day in May
when a female student had tried to bite off a boy's ear.
“I'm noticing more aggressiveness, more violence in my
female students,” said Nola Starling-Ratliff, who has served 10 years as
principal of Racine's Horlick High School. One fight at Horlick this
year involved a 15-year-old pregnant student. She was jumped at the end
of the school year by a group of girls from a neighboring high school
who thought her uppity. During the fight, the group yelled about killing
her baby. Despite being pregnant, the girl planned to retaliate, said
Sammy Rangel, a counselor of at-risk youths who escorted the girl home
for three days.
“She said, 'I'm not scared of those (expletive). I'll
fight all of them.' ”
The scenario came as no surprise to Rangel. Many girl
fights spring from petty issues, such as jealousy and gossip, Rangel and
others said. Compared with boys, girls fight more viciously, refusing to
break apart even after school officials or police show up. Afterward,
they cling to grudges, they said.
“Boys can fight and be friends the next day,” said
15-year-old Aimee Linn, who is entering her sophomore year at Riverside
High School in Milwaukee. Linn said she doesn't fight but has witnessed
many at school.
“With girls, it's more emotional,” Linn said. “They
will fight again or hold a grudge.”
Kathy Malone, division manager for delinquency and
court services in Milwaukee County's Department of Health and Human
“It's no longer unusual to see two girls come in, one
as the victim, the other as the offender, then see them come in two
months later with the roles reversed,” Malone said.
Asserting their power Research shows violent girls
often come from troubled homes. Many have been victims of abuse. But
broken homes and abuse are nothing new. What's changed, some say, is
“It's being flipped around. Girls are getting sick of
being treated badly,” said 14-year-old Cierra Cunningham of Racine, who
remembers her aunt giving her a talk about the importance of being tough
after a male relative hit her in the jaw. Cierra was among the girls
interviewed for this article who said they viewed the rise of female
violence as a sign of women's equality with men. That's the message in
the music of some female rappers and a growing number of violent movies,
video games and TV shows. Movies that celebrate violent women have
become more popular in recent years, paving the way for “Tomb Raider”
and “Kill Bill.”
In the eyes of many adults, violent girls have missed
the point of the campaign for women's equality.
“We've told girls: Stand up for yourself, you're in
charge, don't be a victim,” said Dan Baran, director of Professional
Services Group, an organization that runs youth programs for delinquent
and troubled kids in Kenosha, Milwaukee and Racine counties. But the
girls are confusing being assertive with being aggressive.”
Tougher arrest policies But girl violence might not be
changing as much as the statistics or anecdotes suggest, Chesney-Lind
said. Recent changes to domestic-violence laws across the country
require police to arrest everyone involved in a fight. In many states,
that means children as well adults, girls as well as boys.
“It's more of a rediscovery, girl violence,” Chesney-Lind
said. “Girls have always done more fighting than stereotypes
In the late 1980s, Wisconsin passed a law that
requires police to arrest all adults involved in a violent domestic
dispute. The law doesn't mention children, but evidence suggests police
have increased arrests of children who are involved in these situations.
Most of the girls who land in Milwaukee County Children's Court for
assault were arrested for domestic violence, Malmstadt said. Treatment
programs In Wisconsin, most juvenile offenders, male and female alike,
don't end up behind bars. Instead, they're placed in county-run programs
that provide residential or after-school treatment and supervision.
Among the most successful in Milwaukee County is a
residential treatment program for boys with histories of chronic
criminal behavior. They receive anger management training and other
therapy. Another program combines strict supervision of boys caught
carrying guns with group sessions on victim awareness and drug and
alcohol issues. These programs aren't as effective for girls, whose
violence often springs from emotional wounds rather than a lack of
accountability, Malone said. She hopes to soon launch therapeutic
programs for girls that would focus on relationships and abuse.
“We're not meeting the needs of these girls,” Malone
25 August 2004