Steve Putnam and Stuart A. Copans
Theories abound to explain the rapid increase in the diagnosis and treatment of AD/HD. It has been argued that the increase is due to an increased awareness of the condition, that it is a side effect of television programming with five- to fifteen-second sound bites, or that it is due to decreased parenting in single-parent families or in families with two working parents. Some people point to food additives, and others to the increasing sugar content of children's diet in the Western world. Scientologists blame it on a shared psychiatric-pharmacological conspiracy. Whatever the cause, however, most agree that it is an increasing problem.
Among these possible explanations, there is a slowly emerging body of literature that suggests at least part of the increased frequency of AD/HD diagnoses may be due to the decreased physical activity seen in American and Canadian children (Alexander, 1990; Allen, 1980; Bass, 1985). At the present time, over 50% of these children ride a school bus to school. The average child in the United States today sits in front of a television for six to eight hours a day. Even children's sports, which were daily and self-organized in the 1950s, have been replaced by organized sports run by adults, in which the time sitting on the bench far exceeds the time playing.
Theoretical and Experimental Support for
Exercise’s Connection to AD/HD
There is some theoretical and also some experimental support for the notion that exercise may improve attention and leam- ing (Allen, 1980; Bass, 1985). Part of the theoretical support comes from a new field called evolutionary medicine, in which theoreticians try to understand the evolutionary underpinnings of common problems. Some things we now consid- er diseases actually served a useful function at the time they evolved. For example, while sickle cell anemia is an illness in the Western world, it protected people from malaria in Africa where it evolved. It has been suggested that the high activity level and the scanning of the environment that characterize AD/HD may have been functional in an environment where noticing potential food or predators was actually an important function (Jensen et al., 1997). It has also been suggested that experiential learning, which was the primary mode of learning up until recent history, was usually associated with motor activity, not with the need to sit still for long periods of time.
Experimental work has followed two different approaches. First, experiments in laboratory animals have suggested a possible model for AD/HD. Dopamine, one of the important neurotransmitters (chemicals that nerves use to communicate with one another), appears to play an important role in AD/HD. Rats given a dopamine blocker early in life appear more hyperactive and also appear to be slower learners (Shaywitz et al., 1976). In other studies, exercise has been shown to lead to increases in dopamine (Bliss & Ailion, 1971). Finally, people with ADD have been found to have lower levels of homovanillic acid (a breakdown product of dopamine) in their urine (Post, 1973).
Another second group of experimental studies has gone directly into the classroom to study the effect of exercise on children:
In two classroom studies (Allen, 1980; Bass, 1985), researchers compared student classroom behavior on days that students jogged with days they did not jog. Running improved attention span and impulse control, and it decreased the number of disruptions by 50%. The beneficial effects of running appeared to last from two to four hours.
For her dissertation, Elsom (1980) studied the effects of exercise on four hyperactive boys. Her research suggested that light aerobic exercise had effects comparable to low doses of stimulant medication. In all four subjects, exercise led to substantial improvements in attention as well as significant decreases in depression.
Shipman (1985) found that jogging decreased hyperactivity and impulsivity. He also found that students who were taking stimulant medication required less medication when they were jogging regularly. Again, exercise was found to have its most obvious effects during the first two to four hours after jogging.
Exercise as an Intervention
Given the evidence that a regular school-based program of physical exercise may lead to fewer children with symptoms of AD/HD, and to lower stimulant doses for those who still need medication (Klein & Deffenbacher, 1977; Elsom, 1980; Shipman, 1985), it seems reasonable to ask whether one intervention for AD/HD might be a program of regular physical exercise.
While at first glance, the idea of a class jogging together may sound impractical, there are teachers like Jill Allen (1980) who have run with their classes for years. ln Allen's class, daily 10-minute jogs improved fitness, reduced stress, allowed students to be successful, and improved their self- concepts. Students were allowed to walk, jog, or run on a one-third mile track alone, with a friend, or with the teacher. While Allen and her students motivated classmates with verbal encouragement to keep going, students competed only against themselves. From the warm-up to the beginning of class, the jog took only 15 minutes.
However, exercise need not be restricted to school. It can be incorporated into a student’s life at home as well. For example, the mother of a seven-year-old who was having both behavior and academic problems at school worked out a plan to run with him to and from school each day. He was also involved in swimming on a regular basis and in other extracurricular sports. Once the exercise program was started, the boy’s grades and behavior both improved significantly.
Studies of college athletes have shown that they get higher grades in the semesters they are involved in sports than the semesters they are not. Until recently, it had been assumed that this was due to their need to be more organized and efficient because of the relative lack of time for study during the semesters they were practicing and playing. It may well be, however, that those higher grades were actually related to their regular exercise and the consequent increase in their ability to concentrate.
How to incorporate exercice into a classrom or home routine
The following recommendations can be helpful to anyone who would like to try incorporating exercise into their classroom, agency, or home routine:
Promising but Unproven
Although clearly, additional studies are needed, there is sig- nificant data to suggest that periods of regular exercise, every two to four hours, might lead to improvements in the functioning of children with ADHJD in school: For some children, it might lead to lower required doses of stimulant medication and, for others, to improved functioning without medication. In any case, it is an area in which additional studies are urgently needed.
Alexander, J. L. (1990). Hyperactive children: Which sports have the right stuff? The Physician and Sports Medicine, 18(4), 105-107.
Allen, J. I. (1980, Winter). Jogging can modify disruptive behaviors. Teaching Exceptional Children, 66-70.
Bass, C. K. (1985). Running can modify classroom behavior. Journal of Leaming Disabilities, 18(3), l6(k161. '
Bliss, E. L., & Ailion, J. (1971). Relationship of stress and activity to brain dopamine and homovanillic acid. Ly–e Sciences, 10(1), 160-161.
Elsom, S. D. (1980). Selfmanagement of hyperactivity: Children “s use ofjogging. UMI Dissertation Services.
Jensen, P. S., Mrazek, M. D., Knapp, P. K., Steinberg, L., Pfeffer, C., Schowalter, J., & Shapiro, T. (1997). Evolution and revolution in child psychiatry: AD/HD as a disorder of adaptation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 36(12), 1672-1679.
Klein, S. A., & Deffenbacher, J. L. (1977). Relaxation and exercise for hyperactive, impulsive children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 45, 1159-1162.
Shaywitz, B. A., et al. (1976). Selective brain dopamine depletion in developing rats: An experimental model of minimal brain dysfunction. Science, 191, 305-308.
Shipman, W. M. (1985). Emotional and behavioral effects of long-distance running on children. ln M. L. Sachs & G. W. Buffone (Eds.), Running as therapy (pp. 125-137). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
This feature: Putnam, S. and Copans, S.A. (1998). Exercice: An Alternative Approach to the Treatmen t of ADHD, Reaching Children and Youth, 2(2) pp.66-68